A Peer Review is the evaluation of one’s work by a group of people with similar competencies. It functions as a form of self-regulation by qualified members of a profession within the specific field. It is designed to evaluate the quality, originality and validity of articles. The ultimate purpose of a peer review is to maintain the integrity of the subject to filter out invalid and poor quality articles. 

Types of Peer Review 


  • Single blind review


A single blind review is one where the author does not know who the reviewers are. This is the most common type among scientific journals. The anonymity allows the reviewer to be honest without the fear and criticism of the author. Moreover, knowing who the author is allows the reviewer to use the knowledge of their previous research. On the other hand, the knowledge of the author’s work might introduce a bias into their judgement of the article. Another reason why the reviewer might have a bias against the author is because of their nationality; If they receive too many manuscripts written in bad English from a particular country,, it might lead to a subconscious bias developing against that particular country. But just because your English might be poor, it should not rule out the validity and importance of your work. To avoid your journal getting rejected, go to PaperTrue and check out the work we do with our ESL audience!


  • Double blind review


In the double-blind review, the reviewers don’t know the identity of the authors and vice versa. This is a common method of peer review among social science and humanities journals. This allows for a fair judgement of research and keeps bias out of the equation. A drawback is that anonymity of the reviewers is not guaranteed because of the area of research, the references or the writing style. 


  • Open peer review


In this type of review, the identity of the author and the reviewers are known. It’s not the most common form of peer review and the popularity of the method is yet to be proven. Some of these open peer-reviewed journals may publish the article and the reviews together so that the reader can see both the identity of the reviewers and their comments, but only with accepted articles. An advantage of this system is that it encourages accountability and civility and it improves the overall quality of the review and the article. A drawback of this is that some reviewers might refuse to review for an open peer-reviewed journal, due to concerns about being identified as someone who gave a negative review. 



  • Transferable peer review


This is a fairly new form that allows subject-related journals to transfer reviewed manuscripts between each other. An author submits their paper to a journal, but afterwards if the editors review it and decide that it’s not suitable for their journal but it might be appropriate for another journal, they give the author an option to transfer the manuscript to the other journal. Although you are given the option, there’s no guarantee that it will be accepted in the other journal. One of the advantages of this type of peer review is that it provides the author with an alternative outlet for their work. It reduces the burden on the community of reviewers. On the other hand, this system could be frustrating for authors if the editors of the alternate journal decide that the paper is not suitable. 


  • Collaborative review


A collaborative review is where two or more people work together to undertake the review. This is further divided into two approaches: 1) Two or more reviewers work together to undertake the review and 2) One or more reviewers collaborate with the author to improve the paper until it reaches a publishable standard. One of the main advantages of this review is that it feels less restrictive than a traditional peer review. The downside to this type is the risk of losing the benefit of having two or more independent evaluations along with blurring the distinction between authoring and appraisal. 

The peer review system is important because it contributes to the continuous improvement in scholarly literature and helps quality research get published. Multiple options in a peer review system help you align your research with the one that would maximise its possibility of getting published. To know more about why a peer review is important, go to the PaperTrue Resource Center!